From its county population in 2000 of 10593 to its current population estimate of 8320, the county has experienced a growth change of -2273.
Twiggs County was created by the state legislature in 1809 by the division of Wilkinson County. The county's name honors John Twiggs, a Revolutionary War (1775-83) general.
The county seat was originally mandated by the legislature to occupy the most convenient location for the citizenry, toward the center of the new county. A site was surveyed, and the town, named Marion for Revolutionary War general Frances Marion, was incorporated in 1816. Near that site, now deserted, geographers mapped the exact geographic center of the state. In 1868 nearby Jeffersonville became the county seat. That decision necessitated the dismantling of the first courthouse and its removal by oxcart to the new location.
The construction of Interstate 16 gave Twiggs County increased access to both the coastal areas of Georgia and the metropolitan areas to the north, once more placing the area in its historic context as a crossroads of commerce and migration.