From its county population in 2000 of 23532 to its current population estimate of 33906, the county has experienced a growth change of 10374.
Bryan County was created from Chatham County by an act of the state legislature and was named in honor of Jonathan Bryan, one of the leading colonial settlers in Georgia and a key figure in the colony's movement towards independence.
Bryan County was the scene of large-scale agricultural development during the antebellum period.
The Ogeechee River basin in lower Bryan County became one of the most productive rice-growing areas on the south Atlantic coast during the 1830s and 1840s. By 1855, 3 million pounds of rice annually were being shipped from Bryan County plantations.